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munro_1 [2018/06/03 21:23]
cassius
munro_1 [2018/06/05 08:31]
cassius
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 [42] For neither can we in our country’s day of trouble with untroubled mind think only of our work, nor can the illustrious offset of Memmius in times like these be wanting to the general weal. For what remains to tell, apply to true reason un-busied ears and a keen mind withdrawn from cares, lest my gifts set out for you with steadfast zeal you abandon with disdain, before they are understood. For I will essay to discourse to you of the most high system of heaven and the gods and will open up the first beginnings of things, out of which nature gives birth to all things and increase and nourishment,​ and into which nature likewise dissolves them back after their destruction. These we are accustomed in explaining their ‘reason to call matter and begetting bodies of things and to name seeds of things and also to tern first bodies, because from them as first elements all things are. [42] For neither can we in our country’s day of trouble with untroubled mind think only of our work, nor can the illustrious offset of Memmius in times like these be wanting to the general weal. For what remains to tell, apply to true reason un-busied ears and a keen mind withdrawn from cares, lest my gifts set out for you with steadfast zeal you abandon with disdain, before they are understood. For I will essay to discourse to you of the most high system of heaven and the gods and will open up the first beginnings of things, out of which nature gives birth to all things and increase and nourishment,​ and into which nature likewise dissolves them back after their destruction. These we are accustomed in explaining their ‘reason to call matter and begetting bodies of things and to name seeds of things and also to tern first bodies, because from them as first elements all things are.
  
-[63 ] When human life to view lay foully prostrate upon earth crushed down under the weight of religion, who showed her head from the quarters of heaven with hideous aspect lowering upon mortals, a man of Greece ventured first to lift up his mortal eyes to her face and first to withstand her to her face. Him neither story of gods nor thunderbolts nor heaven with threatening roar could quell: they only chafed the more the eager courage of his soul, filling him with desire to be the first to burst the fast bars of nature’s portals. Therefore the living force of his soul gained the day: on he passed far beyond the flaming walls of the world and traversed throughout in mind and spirit the immeasurable universe; whence he returns a conqueror to tell us what can, what cannot come into being; in short on what principle each thing has its powers defined, its deep-set boundary mark. Therefore religion is put underfoot and trampled upon in turn; us his victory brings level with heaven.+[63] When human life to view lay foully prostrate upon earth crushed down under the weight of religion, who showed her head from the quarters of heaven with hideous aspect lowering upon mortals, a man of Greece ventured first to lift up his mortal eyes to her face and first to withstand her to her face. Him neither story of gods nor thunderbolts nor heaven with threatening roar could quell: they only chafed the more the eager courage of his soul, filling him with desire to be the first to burst the fast bars of nature’s portals. Therefore the living force of his soul gained the day: on he passed far beyond the flaming walls of the world and traversed throughout in mind and spirit the immeasurable universe; whence he returns a conqueror to tell us what can, what cannot come into being; in short on what principle each thing has its powers defined, its deep-set boundary mark. Therefore religion is put underfoot and trampled upon in turn; us his victory brings level with heaven.
  
 [80] This is what I fear herein, lest haply you should fancy that you are entering on unholy grounds of reason and treading the path of sin; whereas on the contrary often and often that very religion has given birth to sinful and unholy deeds. Thus in Aulis the chosen chieftains of the Danai, foremost of men, foully polluted with Iphianassa’s blood the altar of the Trivian maid. Soon as the fillet encircling her maiden tresses shed itself in equal lengths down each cheek, and soon as she saw her father standing sorrowful before the altars and beside him the ministering priests hiding the knife and her countrymen at sight of her shedding tears, speechless in terror she dropped down on her knees and sank to the ground. Nor aught in such a moment could it avail the luckless girl that she had first bestowed the name of father on the king. For lifted up in the hands of the men she was carried shivering to the altars, not after due performance of the customary rites to be escorted by the clear-ringing bridal song, but in the very season of marriage, stainless maid mid the stain of blood, to fall a sad victim by the sacrificing stroke of a father, that thus a happy and prosperous departure might be granted to the fleet. So great the evils to which religion could prompt! [80] This is what I fear herein, lest haply you should fancy that you are entering on unholy grounds of reason and treading the path of sin; whereas on the contrary often and often that very religion has given birth to sinful and unholy deeds. Thus in Aulis the chosen chieftains of the Danai, foremost of men, foully polluted with Iphianassa’s blood the altar of the Trivian maid. Soon as the fillet encircling her maiden tresses shed itself in equal lengths down each cheek, and soon as she saw her father standing sorrowful before the altars and beside him the ministering priests hiding the knife and her countrymen at sight of her shedding tears, speechless in terror she dropped down on her knees and sank to the ground. Nor aught in such a moment could it avail the luckless girl that she had first bestowed the name of father on the king. For lifted up in the hands of the men she was carried shivering to the altars, not after due performance of the customary rites to be escorted by the clear-ringing bridal song, but in the very season of marriage, stainless maid mid the stain of blood, to fall a sad victim by the sacrificing stroke of a father, that thus a happy and prosperous departure might be granted to the fleet. So great the evils to which religion could prompt!
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 [359] Once more, why do we see one thing surpass another in weight though not larger in size? For if there is just as much body in a ball of wool as there is in a lump of lead, it is natural it should weigh the same, since the property of body is to weigh all things downwards, while on the contrary the nature of void is ever without weight. Therefore when a thing is just as large, yet is found to be void in it; while on the other hand that which is lighter, it proves sure enough that it has more of ‘heavier shows that there is in it more of body and that it contains within it much less of void. Therefore that which we are seeking with keen reason exists sure enough, mixed up in things; and we call it void. [359] Once more, why do we see one thing surpass another in weight though not larger in size? For if there is just as much body in a ball of wool as there is in a lump of lead, it is natural it should weigh the same, since the property of body is to weigh all things downwards, while on the contrary the nature of void is ever without weight. Therefore when a thing is just as large, yet is found to be void in it; while on the other hand that which is lighter, it proves sure enough that it has more of ‘heavier shows that there is in it more of body and that it contains within it much less of void. Therefore that which we are seeking with keen reason exists sure enough, mixed up in things; and we call it void.
  
-[371] And herein I am obliged to forestall this point which some raise, lest it draw you away from the truth. The waters they say make way for the scaly creatures as they press on, and open liquid paths, because the fish leave room behind them, into which the yielding waters may stream; thus other things too may move and change place among themselves, although the whole sum be full.+[371] And herein I am obliged to forestall this point which some raise, lest it draw you away from the truth. The waters they say make way for the scaly creatures as they press on, and open liquid paths, because the fish leave room behind them, into which the yielding waters may stream; thus other things too may move and change place among themselves, although the whole sum be full. This you are to know has been taken up on grounds wholly false. For on what side I ask can the scaly creatures move forwards, unless the waters have first made room? Again on what side can the waters give place, so long as the fish are unable to go on? Therefore you must either strip all bodies of motion or admit that in things void is mixed up from which every thing gets its first start in moving.
  
-This you are to know has been taken up on grounds wholly false.+[385] Lastly if two broad bodies after contact quickly spring asunder, the air must surely fill all the void which is formed between the bodies. Well however rapidly it stream together with swift-circling currents, yet the whole space will not be able to be filled up in one moment for it must occupy first one spot and then another, until the whole is taken up.
  
-For on what side I ask can the scaly creatures move forwardsunless ​the waters ​have first made room? Again on what side can the waters give placeso long as the fish are unable to go on? Therefore ​you must either strip all bodies of motion or admit that in things void is mixed up from which every thing gets its first start in moving.+[391] But if haply any one supposes thatwhen the bodies ​have started asunder, that result follows because the air condenses, he is mistaken; for a void is then formed which was not before, and a void also is filled which existed before; nor can the air condense in such a waynor supposing it could, could it methinks without void draw into itself and bring its parts together. Wherefore however ​long you hold out by urging many objections, ​you must needs in the end admit that there is a void in things.
  
-Lastly if two broad bodies after contact quickly spring asunder, the air must surely fill all the void which is formed between the bodies.+[401] And many more arguments I may state to you in order to accumulate proof on my words; but these slight footprints are enough for a keen-searching mind to enable you by yourself to find out all the rest. For as dogs often discover by smell the lair of a mountain-ranging wild beast though covered over with leaveswhen once they have got on the sure tracks, thus you in cases like this will be able by yourself alone to see one thing after another and find your way into all dark corners and draw forth the truth.
  
-Well however rapidly it stream together with swift-circling currents, yet the whole space will not be able to be filled up in one moment for it must occupy first one spot and then anotheruntil the whole is taken up.+[411] But if you lag or swerve a jot from the reality, this I can promise you, Memmius, without more ado: such plenteous draughts from abundant wellsprings my sweet tongue shall pour from my richly furnished breast, that I fear slow age will steal over our limbs and break open in us the fastnesses of lifeere the whole store of reasons on any one question has by my verses been dropped into your ears. But now to resume the thread of the design which I am weaving in verse.
  
-But if haply any one supposes thatwhen the bodies have started asunder, that result follows because the air condenseshe is mistaken; for a void is then formed ​which was not before, ​and a void also is filled ​which existed beforenor can the air condense ​in such a waynor supposing it could, could it methinks without void draw into itself and bring its parts together.+[420] All nature thenas it exists by itself, is founded on two things: there are bodies and there is void in which these bodies are placed ​and through ​which they move about. For that body exists by itself the general feeling of man kind declaresand unless at the very first belief ​in this be firmly groundedthere will be nothing to which we can appeal on hidden things in order to prove anything by reasoning of mind. Then againif room and space which we call void did not exist, bodies ​could not be placed anywhere nor move about at all to any side; as we have demonstrated to you a little before.
  
-Wherefore however long you hold out by urging many objectionsyou must needs in the end admit that there is a void in things.+[431] Moreover there is nothing which you can affirm to be at once separate from all body and quite distinct from voidwhich would so to say count as the discovery of a third nature. For whatever shall exist, this of itself ​must be something or other. Now if it shall admit of touch in however slight and small a measure, it will, be it with a large or be it with a little addition, provided it do exist, increase ​the amount of body and join the sum. But if it shall be intangible and unable to hinder any thing from passing through it on any side, this you are to know will be that which we call empty void.
  
-And many more arguments I may state to you in order to accumulate proof on my words; but these slight footprints are enough for a keen-searching ​mind to enable ​you by yourself ​to find out all the rest.+[439] Again whatever shall exist by itself, will either do something or will itself suffer by the action of other things, or will be of such a nature as things are able to exist and go on in. But no thing can do and suffer without body, nor aught furnish room except void and vacancy. Therefore beside void and bodies no third nature taken by itself can be left in the number of things, either such as to fall at any time under the ken of our senses or such as any one can grasp by the reason of his mind. For whatever things are named, you will either find to be properties linked to these two things or you will see to be accidents of these things. That is a property which can in no case be disjoined and separated without utter destruction accompanying the severance, such as the weight of a stone, the heat of fire, the fluidity of water. Slavery on the other hand, poverty and riches, liberty war concord and all other things which may come and go while the nature of the thing remains unharmed, these we are wont, as it is right we should, to call accidents.
  
-For as dogs often discover ​by smell the lair of a mountain-ranging wild beast though covered over with leaveswhen once they have got on the sure tracks, thus you in cases like this will be able by yourself alone to see one thing after another and find your way into all dark corners and draw forth the truth.+[460] Time also exists not by itselfbut simply from the things which happen the sense apprehends what has been done in time past, as well as what is present and what is to follow ​after. And we must admit that no one feels time by itself abstracted from the motion and calm rest of things.
  
-But if you lag or swerve a jot from the reality, this I can promise you, Memmius, without more ado: such plenteous draughts from abundant wellsprings my sweet tongue shall pour from my richly furnished breast, ​that I fear slow age will steal over our limbs and break open in us the fastnesses ​of lifeere the whole store of reasons on any one question has by my verses ​been dropped into your ears.+[465] So when they say that the daughter of Tyndarus was ravished ​and the Trojan nations were subdued ​in war, we must mind that they do not force us to admit that these things are by themselves, since those generations ​of men, of whom these things were accidents, time now gone by has irrevocably swept away. For whatever shall have been done may be termed an accident in one case of the Teucran people, in another of the countries simply.
  
-But now to resume ​the thread ​of the design which I am weaving ​in verse: ​all nature then, as it exists ​by itself, is founded on two things: there are bodies ​and there is void in which these bodies are placed and through ​which they move about.+[472] Yes for if there had been no matter of things and no room and space in which things severally go on, never had the fire, kindled by love of the beauty of Tyndarus’ daughter, blazed beneath the Phrygian breast of Alexander and lighted up the famous struggles of cruel war, nor had the timber horse unknown to the Trojans wrapt Pergama ​in flames by its night-issuing brood of sons of the Greeks; so that you may clearly perceive that all actions from first to last exist not by themselves and are not by themselves in the way that body isnor are terms of the same kind as void is, but are rather of such a kind that you may fairly call them accidents of body and of the room in which they severally go on.
  
-For that body exists by itself ​the general feeling ​of man kind declares; and unless at the very first belief in this be firmly grounded, there will be nothing ​to which we can appeal on hidden ​things ​in order to prove anything by reasoning ​of mind.+[484] Bodies again are partly first-beginnings of things, partly those which are formed of a union of first beginnings. But those which are first-beginnings of things no force can quench: they are sure to have the better by their solid body. Although it seems difficult to believe ​that aught can be found among things with a solid body. For the lightning ​of heaven passes through the walls of houses, as well as noise and voicesiron grows red-hot in the fire and stones burn with fierce heat and burst asunder ​the hardness of gold is broken up and dissolved by heat; the ice of brass melts vanquished by the flame; warmth and piercing cold ooze through silversince we have felt both, as we held cups with the hand indue fashion and the water was poured down into them. So universally ​there is found to be nothing ​solid in things. But yet because true reason and the nature of things constrains, attend until we make clear in a few verses that there are such things as consist of solid and everlasting body, which we teach are seeds of things ​and first-beginnings,​ out of which the whole sum of things which now exists has been produced.
  
-Then againif room and space which we call void did not existbodies could not be placed anywhere nor move about at all to any sideas we have demonstrated to you a little before.+[504] First of all then since there has been found to exist a two-fold and widely dissimilar nature of two thingsthat is to say of body and of place in which things severally go on, each of the two must exist for and by itself and quite unmixed. For wherever there is empty space which we call void, there body is not; wherever again body maintains itself, there empty void no wise exists. First bodies therefore are solid and without void.
  
-Moreover ​there is nothing which you can affirm to be at once separate from all body and quite distinct from void, which would so to say count as the discovery ​of a third nature.+[512] Again since there is void in things begotten, solid matter must exist about this void, and no thing can be proved by true reason to conceal in its body and have within it void, unless you choose ​to allow that that which holds it in is solid. Again that can be nothing but a union of matter which can keep in the void of things. Matter therefore, which consists ​of a solid body, may be everlasting,​ though all things else are dissolved.
  
-For whatever shall existthis of itself must be something or other.+[520] Moreoverif there were no empty void, the universe would be solid; unless on the other hand there were certain bodies to fill up whatever places they occupied, the existing universe would be empty and void space. Therefore sure enough body and void are marked off in alternate layers, since the universe is neither of a perfect fulness nor a perfect void. There are therefore certain bodies which can vary void space with full.
  
-Now if it shall admit of touch in however slight and small a measure, it willbe it with a large or be it with a little additionprovided ​it do existincrease ​the amount ​of body and join the sum.+[525] These can neither be broken in pieces by the stroke of blows from without nor have their texture undone by aught piercing to their core nor give way before any other kind of assault; as we have proved to you a little before. For without void nothing seems to admit of being crushed ​in or broken up or split in two by cutting, or of taking in wet or permeating cold or penetrating fireby which all things are destroyed. And the more anything contains within ​it of void, the more thoroughly it gives way to the assault ​of these things. Therefore if first bodies are as I have shown solid and without void, they must be everlasting.
  
-But if it shall be intangible and unable to hinder any thing from passing through it on any sidethis you are to know will be that which we call empty void.+[541] Again unless matter had been eternal, all things before this would have utterly returned to nothing and whatever things we see would have been born anew from nothing. ​But since I have proved above that nothing can be produced ​from nothingand that what is begotten cannot be called ​to nothing, first-beginnings must be of an imperishable body, into which all things can be dissolved at their last hour, that there may be a supply of matter for the reproduction of things. Therefore first-beginnings are of solid singleness, and in no other way can they have been preserved through ages during infinite time past in order to reproduce things.
  
-Again whatever shall exist by itself, will either do something or will itself suffer by the action ​of other things, ​or will be of such nature as things are able to exist and go on in.+[552] Again if nature had set no limit to the breaking ​of things, ​by this time the bodies of matter would have been so far reduced by the breaking of past “ages that nothing could within a fixed time be conceived out of them and reach its utmost growth of being. For we see that anything is more quickly destroyed than again renewed; and therefore that which the long, the infinite duration of all bygone time had broken up demolished and destroyed, could never be reproduced in all remaining time. But now sure enough ​fixed limit to their breaking has been set, since we see each thing renewed, ​and at the same time definite periods fixed for things each after its kind to reach the flower of their age.
  
-But no thing can do and suffer without bodynor aught furnish room except ​void and vacancy.+[566] Moreover while the bodies of matter are most solid, it may yet be explained in what way all things which are formed soft, as air water earth fires, are so formed ​and by what force they severally go onsince once for all there is void mixed up in things. But on the other hand if the first-beginnings of things be soft, it cannot be explained out of what enduring basalt and iron can be produced; for their whole nature will utterly lack a first foundation to begin with. First-beginnings therefore are strong in solid singleness, and by a denser combination of these all things can be closely packed ​and exhibit enduring strength.
  
-Therefore beside void and bodies ​no third nature taken by itself can be left in the number ​of thingseither such as to fall at any time under the ken of our senses or such as any one can grasp by the reason ​of his mind.+[?????] Again if no limit has been set to the breaking ​of bodiesnevertheless the several bodies which go to things must survive from eternity up to the present time, not yet assailed ​by any danger. But since they are possessed ​of a frail nature, it is not consistent with this that they could have continued through eternity harassed through ages by countless blows.
  
-For whatever ​things are namedyou will either find to be properties linked to these two things ​or you will see to be accidents ​of these things.+[578]  Again too since a limit of growing and sustaining life has been assigned to things each after its kind, and since by the laws of nature it stands decreed what they can each do and what they cannot do, and since nothing is changed, but all things are so constant that the different birds all in succession exhibit in their body the distinctive marks of their kindthey must sure enough have a body of unchangeable matter also. For if the first-beginnings of things ​could in any way be vanquished and changed, it would then be uncertain too what could and what could not rise into being, in short on what principle each thing has its powers defined, its deep-set boundary mark; nor could the generations reproduce so often each after its kind the nature habits, way of life and motions of the parents.
  
-That is a property which can in no case be disjoined and separated without utter destruction accompanying the severance, such as the weight of a stone, the heat of fire, the fluidity of water. +[593] Then again since there is ever a bounding point [to bodies, which appears to us to be a least, there ought in the same way to be a bounding point the least conceivable to that first body] which already is beyond what our senses can perceive: that point sure enough is without parts and consists of a least nature and never has existed apart by itself and will not be able in future so to exist, since it is in itself a part of that other; and so a first and single part and then other and other similar parts in succession fill up in close serried mass the nature of the first body; and since these cannot exist by themselves, they must cleave to that from which they cannot in any way be torn.
- +
-Slavery on the other hand, poverty and riches, liberty war concord and all other things which may come and go while the nature of the thing remains unharmed, these we are wont, as it is right we should, to call accidents. +
- +
-Time also exists not by itself, but simply from the things which happen the sense apprehends what has been done in time past, as well as what is present and what is to follow after. +
- +
-And we must admit that no one feels time by itself abstracted from the motion and calm rest of things. +
- +
-So when they say that the daughter of Tyndarus was ravished and the Trojan nations were subdued in war, we must mind that they do not force us to admit that these things are by themselves, since those generations of men, of whom these things were accidents, time now gone by has irrevocably swept away. +
- +
-For whatever shall have been done may be termed an accident in one case of the Teucran people, in another of the countries simply. +
- +
-Yes for if there had been no matter of things and no room and space in which things severally go on, never had the fire, kindled by love of the beauty of Tyndarus’ daughter, blazed beneath the Phrygian breast of Alexander and lighted up the famous struggles of cruel war, nor had the timber horse unknown to the Trojans wrapt Pergama in flames by its night-issuing brood of sons of the Greeks; so that you may clearly perceive that all actions from first to last exist not by themselves and are not by themselves in the way that body is, nor are terms of the same kind as void is, but are rather of such a kind that you may fairly call them accidents of body and of the room in which they severally go on. +
- +
-Bodies again are partly first-beginnings of things, partly those which are formed of a union of first beginnings. +
- +
-But those which are first-beginnings of things no force can quench: they are sure to have the better by their solid body. +
- +
-Although it seems difficult to believe that aught can be found among things with a solid body. +
- +
-For the lightning of heaven passes through the walls of houses, as well as noise and voices; iron grows red-hot in the fire and stones burn with fierce heat and burst asunder the hardness of gold is broken up and dissolved by heat; the ice of brass melts vanquished by the flame; warmth and piercing cold ooze through silver, since we have felt both, as we held cups with the hand indue fashion and the water was poured down into them. +
- +
-So universally there is found to be nothing solid in things. +
- +
-But yet because true reason and the nature of things constrains, attend until we make clear in a few verses that there are such things as consist of solid and everlasting body, which we teach are seeds of things and first-beginnings,​ out of which the whole sum of things which now exists has been produced. +
- +
-First of all then since there has been found to exist a two-fold and widely dissimilar nature of two things, that is to say of body and of place in which things severally go on, each of the two must exist for and by itself and quite unmixed. +
- +
-For wherever there is empty space which we call void, there body is not; wherever again body maintains itself, there empty void no wise exists. +
- +
-First bodies therefore are solid and without void. +
- +
-Again since there is void in things begotten, solid matter must exist about this void, and no thing can be proved by true reason to conceal in its body and have within it void, unless you choose to allow that that which holds it in is solid. +
- +
-Again that can be nothing but a union of matter which can keep in the void of things. +
- +
-Matter therefore, which consists of a solid body, may be everlasting,​ though all things else are dissolved. +
- +
-Moreover, if there were no empty void, the universe would be solid; unless on the other hand there were certain bodies to fill up whatever places they occupied, the existing universe would be empty and void space. +
- +
-Therefore sure enough body and void are marked off in alternate layers, since the universe is neither of a perfect fulness nor a perfect void. +
- +
-There are therefore certain bodies which can vary void space with full. +
- +
-These can neither be broken in pieces by the stroke of blows from without nor have their texture undone by aught piercing to their core nor give way before any other kind of assault; as we have proved to you a little before. +
- +
-For without void nothing seems to admit of being crushed in or broken up or split in two by cutting, or of taking in wet or permeating cold or penetrating fire, by which all things are destroyed. +
- +
-And the more anything contains within it of void, the more thoroughly it gives way to the assault of these things. +
- +
-Therefore if first bodies are as I have shown solid and without void, they must be everlasting. +
- +
-Again unless matter had been eternal, all things before this would have utterly returned to nothing and whatever things we see would have been born anew from nothing. +
- +
-But since I have proved above that nothing can be produced from nothing, and that what is begotten cannot be called to nothing, first-beginnings must be of an imperishable body, into which all things can be dissolved at their last hour, that there may be a supply of matter for the reproduction of things. +
- +
-Therefore first-beginnings are of solid singleness, and in no other way can they have been preserved through ages during infinite time past in order to reproduce things. +
- +
-Again if nature had set no limit to the breaking of things, by this time the bodies of matter would have been so far reduced by the breaking of past “ages that nothing could within a fixed time be conceived out of them and reach its utmost growth of being. +
- +
-For we see that anything is more quickly destroyed than again renewed; and therefore that which the long, the infinite duration of all bygone time had broken up demolished and destroyed, could never be reproduced in all remaining time. +
- +
-But now sure enough a fixed limit to their breaking has been set, since we see each thing renewed, and at the same time definite periods fixed for things each after its kind to reach the flower of their age. +
- +
-Moreover while the bodies of matter are most solid, it may yet be explained in what way all things which are formed soft, as air water earth fires, are so formed and by what force they severally go on, since once for all there is void mixed up in things. +
- +
-But on the other hand if the first-beginnings of things be soft, it cannot be explained out of what enduring basalt and iron can be produced; for their whole nature will utterly lack a first foundation to begin with. +
- +
-First-beginnings therefore are strong in solid singleness, and by a denser combination of these all things can be closely packed and exhibit enduring strength. +
- +
-Again if no limit has been set to the breaking of bodies, nevertheless the several bodies which go to things must survive from eternity up to the present time, not yet assailed by any danger. +
- +
-But since they are possessed of a frail nature, it is not consistent with this that they could have continued through eternity harassed through ages by countless blows. +
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-Again too since a limit of growing and sustaining life has been assigned to things each after its kind, and since by the laws of nature it stands decreed what they can each do and what they cannot do, and since nothing is changed, but all things are so constant that the different birds all in succession exhibit in their body the distinctive marks of their kind, they must sure enough have a body of unchangeable matter also. +
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-For if the first-beginnings of things could in any way be vanquished and changed, it would then be uncertain too what could and what could not rise into being, in short on what principle each thing has its powers defined, its deep-set boundary mark; nor could the generations reproduce so often each after its kind the nature habits, way of life and motions of the parents. +
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-Then again since there is ever a bounding point [to bodies, which appears to us to be a least, there ought in the same way to be a bounding point the least conceivable to that first body] which already is beyond what our senses can perceive: that point sure enough is without parts and consists of a least nature and never has existed apart by itself and will not be able in future so to exist, since it is in itself a part of that other; and so a first and single part and then other and other similar parts in succession fill up in close serried mass the nature of the first body; and since these cannot exist by themselves, they must cleave to that from which they cannot in any way be torn.+
  
 First-beginnings therefore are of solid singleness, massed together and cohering closely by means of least parts, not compounded out of a union of those parts, but, rather, strong in everlasting singleness. First-beginnings therefore are of solid singleness, massed together and cohering closely by means of least parts, not compounded out of a union of those parts, but, rather, strong in everlasting singleness.
munro_1.txt · Last modified: 2018/06/27 08:11 by cassius