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letter_to_pythocles [2018/06/25 19:40]
cassius [Epicurus' Letter to Pythocles]
letter_to_pythocles [2019/02/18 11:24] (current)
cassiusamicus
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 ====== Epicurus'​ Letter to Pythocles ====== ====== Epicurus'​ Letter to Pythocles ======
  
-This translation is that of Cyril Bailey. ​The headings here are added for ease of use and are __not a part of the original text__. +//This translation is that of Cyril Bailey.//
- +
- +
-===== The purpose of this letter is to explain that the phenomena we see in the sky is not supernatural,​ but arises from natural causes. =====+
  
 CLEON brought me a letter from you in which you continue to express a kindly feeling towards me, which is a just return for my interest in you, and you attempt with some success to recall the arguments which lead to a life of blessedness. CLEON brought me a letter from you in which you continue to express a kindly feeling towards me, which is a just return for my interest in you, and you attempt with some success to recall the arguments which lead to a life of blessedness.
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 Therefore lay good hold on it, keep it in mind, and go through it all keenly, together with the rest which I sent in the small epitome to Herodotus. Therefore lay good hold on it, keep it in mind, and go through it all keenly, together with the rest which I sent in the small epitome to Herodotus.
- 
-===== First remember that the purpose of all knowledge is to secure confidence in our happiness. ===== 
  
 First of all then we must not suppose that any other object is to be gained from the knowledge of the phenomena of the sky, whether they are dealt with in connection with other doctrines or independently,​ than peace of mind and a sure confidence, just as in all other branches of study. First of all then we must not suppose that any other object is to be gained from the knowledge of the phenomena of the sky, whether they are dealt with in connection with other doctrines or independently,​ than peace of mind and a sure confidence, just as in all other branches of study.
- 
-===== Remember also that our goal is not to set forth unprovable theories, but to grasp understandable natural explanations for what we see, so we shall not fear that gods are behind it. ===== 
  
 We must not try to force an impossible explanation,​ nor employ a method of inquiry like our reasoning either about the modes of life or with respect to the solution of other physical problems: witness such propositions as that ‘the universe consists of bodies and the intangible,​’ or that ‘the elements are indivisible,'​ and all such statements in circumstances where there is only one explanation which harmonizes with phenomena. We must not try to force an impossible explanation,​ nor employ a method of inquiry like our reasoning either about the modes of life or with respect to the solution of other physical problems: witness such propositions as that ‘the universe consists of bodies and the intangible,​’ or that ‘the elements are indivisible,'​ and all such statements in circumstances where there is only one explanation which harmonizes with phenomena.
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 For we must not conduct scientific investigation by means of empty assumptions and arbitrary principles, but follow the lead of phenomena: for our life has not now any place for irrational belief and groundless imaginings, but we must live free from trouble. For we must not conduct scientific investigation by means of empty assumptions and arbitrary principles, but follow the lead of phenomena: for our life has not now any place for irrational belief and groundless imaginings, but we must live free from trouble.
- 
-===== And remember that it is not possible, or necessary, to prove things in the sky with certainty, so our goal is simply to show that any of several scientifically reasonable causes may explain what we see in the sky, so we may have confidence that these are not caused by gods. ===== 
  
 Now all goes on without disturbance as far as regards each of those things which may be explained in several ways so as to harmonize with what we perceive, when one admits, as we are bound to do, probable theories about them. Now all goes on without disturbance as far as regards each of those things which may be explained in several ways so as to harmonize with what we perceive, when one admits, as we are bound to do, probable theories about them.
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 Yet we must never desert the appearance of each of these phenomena, and further, as regards what is associated with it, must distinguish those things whose production in several ways is not contradicted by phenomena on earth. Yet we must never desert the appearance of each of these phenomena, and further, as regards what is associated with it, must distinguish those things whose production in several ways is not contradicted by phenomena on earth.
- 
-===== We can consider every organized section that we can see in the sky to be a "​world,"​ and we can presume that things occur there as they do here based on the evidence of what we see here. ===== 
  
 A world is a circumscribed portion of sky, containing heavenly bodies and an earth and all the heavenly phenomena, whose dissolution will cause all within it to fall into confusion: it is a piece cut off from the infinite and ends in a boundary either rare or dense, either revolving or stationary: its outline may be spherical or three-cornered,​ or any kind of shape. A world is a circumscribed portion of sky, containing heavenly bodies and an earth and all the heavenly phenomena, whose dissolution will cause all within it to fall into confusion: it is a piece cut off from the infinite and ends in a boundary either rare or dense, either revolving or stationary: its outline may be spherical or three-cornered,​ or any kind of shape.
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 And that such worlds are infinite in number we can be sure, and also that such a world may come into being both inside another world and in an interworld, by which we mean a space between worlds; it will be in a place with much void, and not in a large empty space quite void, as some say: this occurs when seeds of the right kind have rushed in from a single world or interworld, or from several: little by little they make junctions and articulations,​ and cause changes of position to another place, as it may happen, and produce irrigations of the appropriate matter until the period of completion and stability, which lasts as long as the underlying foundations are capable of receiving additions. And that such worlds are infinite in number we can be sure, and also that such a world may come into being both inside another world and in an interworld, by which we mean a space between worlds; it will be in a place with much void, and not in a large empty space quite void, as some say: this occurs when seeds of the right kind have rushed in from a single world or interworld, or from several: little by little they make junctions and articulations,​ and cause changes of position to another place, as it may happen, and produce irrigations of the appropriate matter until the period of completion and stability, which lasts as long as the underlying foundations are capable of receiving additions.
  
-For it is not merely necessary for a gathering of atoms to take place, nor indeed for a whirl and nothing more to be set in motion, as is supposed, by necessity, in an empty space in which it is possible for a world to come into being, nor can the world go on increasing until it collides with another world, as one of the so-called physical philosophers says, for this is a contradiction of phenomena. ​+For it is not merely necessary for a gathering of atoms to take place, nor indeed for a whirl and nothing more to be set in motion, as is supposed, by necessity, in an empty space in which it is possible for a world to come into being, nor can the world go on increasing until it collides with another world, as one of the so-called physical philosophers says, for this is a contradiction of phenomena.
  
 Sun and moon and the other stars were not created by themselves and subsequently taken in by the world, but were fashioned in it from the first and gradually grew in size by the aggregations and whirlings of bodies of minute parts, either windy or fiery or both, for this is what our sensation suggests. Sun and moon and the other stars were not created by themselves and subsequently taken in by the world, but were fashioned in it from the first and gradually grew in size by the aggregations and whirlings of bodies of minute parts, either windy or fiery or both, for this is what our sensation suggests.
- 
-===== Due to our limited power of observation,​ all we can conclude about the possibile causes of the things we see is that those causes must comply with what we see, and how we see it, and comparing those observations to how things at a distance appear here on Earth. ===== 
  
 The size of sun (and moon) and the other stars is for us what it appears to be; and in reality it is either (slightly) greater than what we see or slightly less or the same size: for so too fires on earth when looked at from a distance seem to the senses. The size of sun (and moon) and the other stars is for us what it appears to be; and in reality it is either (slightly) greater than what we see or slightly less or the same size: for so too fires on earth when looked at from a distance seem to the senses.
  
-And every objection at this point will easily be dissipated, if we pay attention to the clear vision, as I show in my books about nature. ​+And every objection at this point will easily be dissipated, if we pay attention to the clear vision, as I show in my books about nature.
  
-The risings and settings of the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies may be due to kindling and extinction, ​ the composition of the surrounding matter at the places of rising and setting being such as to lead to these results: for nothing in phenomena is against it. +The risings and settings of the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies may be due to kindling and extinction, the composition of the surrounding matter at the places of rising and setting being such as to lead to these results: for nothing in phenomena is against it.
  
 Or again, the effect in question might be produced by their appearance over the top of the earth, and again the interposition of the earth in front of them: for once more nothing in phenomena is against it. Or again, the effect in question might be produced by their appearance over the top of the earth, and again the interposition of the earth in front of them: for once more nothing in phenomena is against it.
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 The wanings of the moon and its subsequent waxings might be due to the revolution of its own body, or equally well to successive conformations of the atmosphere, or again to the interposition of other bodies; they may be accounted for in all the ways in which phenomena on earth invite us to such explanations of these phases; provided only one does not become enamoured of the method of the single cause and groundlessly put the others out of court, without having considered what it is possible for a man to observe and what is not, and desiring therefore to observe what is impossible. The wanings of the moon and its subsequent waxings might be due to the revolution of its own body, or equally well to successive conformations of the atmosphere, or again to the interposition of other bodies; they may be accounted for in all the ways in which phenomena on earth invite us to such explanations of these phases; provided only one does not become enamoured of the method of the single cause and groundlessly put the others out of court, without having considered what it is possible for a man to observe and what is not, and desiring therefore to observe what is impossible.
  
-Next the moon may have her light from herself or from the sun, for on earth too we see many things shining with their own, and many with reflected light. ​ +Next the moon may have her light from herself or from the sun, for on earth too we see many things shining with their own, and many with reflected light.
- +
-===== In our consideration of multiple possible causes is that we must allow only those hypotheses which are consistent with the evidence we have.  We must not allow speculation with theories that are inconsistent with our facts, and thereby allow ourselves to fall prey to the error of thinking that we have a certain idea of a single cause for these phenomena. =====+
  
 Nor is any celestial phenomenon against these explanations,​ if one always remembers the method of manifold causes and investigates hypotheses and explanations consistent with them, and does not look to inconsistent notions and emphasize them without cause and so fall back in different ways on different occasions on the method of the single cause. Nor is any celestial phenomenon against these explanations,​ if one always remembers the method of manifold causes and investigates hypotheses and explanations consistent with them, and does not look to inconsistent notions and emphasize them without cause and so fall back in different ways on different occasions on the method of the single cause.
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 And in this way we must consider together the causes that suit with one another and realize that it is not impossible that some should coincide at the same time. And in this way we must consider together the causes that suit with one another and realize that it is not impossible that some should coincide at the same time.
  
-Next the regularity of the periods of the heavenly bodies must be understood in the same way as such regularity is seen in some of the events that happen on earth. ​ +Next the regularity of the periods of the heavenly bodies must be understood in the same way as such regularity is seen in some of the events that happen on earth.
- +
-===== And in our consideration of multiple possible causes we must never consider the actions of gods as a possible cause, because the nature of gods as perfect means that they are never involved in burdensome activities nor do they depart from their state of perfection. =====+
  
 And do not let the divine nature be introduced at any point into these considerations,​ but let it be preserved free from burdensome duties and in entire blessedness. And do not let the divine nature be introduced at any point into these considerations,​ but let it be preserved free from burdensome duties and in entire blessedness.
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 For if this principle is not observed, the whole discussion of causes in celestial phenomena is in vain, as it has already been for certain persons who have not clung to the method of possible explanations,​ but have fallen back on the useless course of thinking that things could only happen in one way, and of rejecting all other ways in harmony with what is possible, being driven thus to what is inconceivable and being unable to compare earthly phenomena, which we must accept as indications. For if this principle is not observed, the whole discussion of causes in celestial phenomena is in vain, as it has already been for certain persons who have not clung to the method of possible explanations,​ but have fallen back on the useless course of thinking that things could only happen in one way, and of rejecting all other ways in harmony with what is possible, being driven thus to what is inconceivable and being unable to compare earthly phenomena, which we must accept as indications.
  
-===== The limits of our perceptions prevent us from concluding, in many cases, that there is only one cause of what we see. ===== +The successive changes in the length of nights and days may be due to the fact that the sun’s movements above the earth become fast and then slow again because he passes across regions of unequal length or because he traverses some regions more quickly or more slowly, (or again to the quicker or slower gathering of the fires that make the sun), as we observe occurs with some things on earth, with which we must be in harmony in speaking of celestial phenomena.
- +
-The successive changes in the length of nights and days may be due to the fact that the sun’s movements above the earth become fast and then slow again because he passes across regions of unequal length or because he traverses some regions more quickly or more slowly, (or again to the quicker or slower gathering of the fires that make the sun), as we observe occurs with some things on earth, with which we must be in harmony in speaking of celestial phenomena. ​+
  
 But those who assume one cause fight against the evidence of phenomena and fail to ask whether it is possible for men to make such observations. But those who assume one cause fight against the evidence of phenomena and fail to ask whether it is possible for men to make such observations.
  
-Signs of the weather may occur owing to the coincidence of occasions, as happens with animals we can all see on earth, and also through alterations and changes in the atmosphere, for both these are in accordance with phenomena. ​ +Signs of the weather may occur owing to the coincidence of occasions, as happens with animals we can all see on earth, and also through alterations and changes in the atmosphere, for both these are in accordance with phenomena.
  
 But under what circumstances the cause is produced by this or that, we cannot perceive. But under what circumstances the cause is produced by this or that, we cannot perceive.
  
-Clouds may be produced and formed both by the condensation of the atmosphere owing to compression by winds and by the interlacing of atoms clinging to one another and suitable for producing this result, and again by the gathering of streams from earth and the waters: and there are several other ways in which the formation of such things may not impossibly be brought about. ​+Clouds may be produced and formed both by the condensation of the atmosphere owing to compression by winds and by the interlacing of atoms clinging to one another and suitable for producing this result, and again by the gathering of streams from earth and the waters: and there are several other ways in which the formation of such things may not impossibly be brought about.
  
 And from them again rain may be produced if they are squeezed in one part or changed in another, or again by a downward current of wind moving through the atmosphere from appropriate places, a more violent shower being produced from certain conglomerations of atoms suited to create such downfalls. And from them again rain may be produced if they are squeezed in one part or changed in another, or again by a downward current of wind moving through the atmosphere from appropriate places, a more violent shower being produced from certain conglomerations of atoms suited to create such downfalls.
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 Or again it may be that the light scattered abroad from the heavenly bodies is taken in by the clouds, and then is driven together by the movement of the clouds and wind, and falls out through the clouds; or else light composed of most subtle particles may filter through the clouds, whereby the clouds may be set on fire by the flame and thunder produced by the movement of the fire. Or again it may be that the light scattered abroad from the heavenly bodies is taken in by the clouds, and then is driven together by the movement of the clouds and wind, and falls out through the clouds; or else light composed of most subtle particles may filter through the clouds, whereby the clouds may be set on fire by the flame and thunder produced by the movement of the fire.
  
-Or the wind may be fired owing to the strain of motion and its violent rotation, or clouds may be rent by wind and atoms fall out which produce fire and cause the appearance of lightning. ​ +Or the wind may be fired owing to the strain of motion and its violent rotation, or clouds may be rent by wind and atoms fall out which produce fire and cause the appearance of lightning.
  
 And several other methods may easily be observed, if one clings always to phenomena and can compare what is akin to these things. And several other methods may easily be observed, if one clings always to phenomena and can compare what is akin to these things.
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 Thunderbolts may occur because there are frequent gatherings of wind, which whirls about and is fanned into a fierce flame, and then a portion of it breaks off and rushes violently on the places beneath, the breaking taking place because the regions approached are successively denser owing to the condensation of clouds, or as the result of the actual outburst of the whirling fire, in the same way that thunder may be produced, when the fire becomes too great and is too violently fanned by wind and so breaks through the cloud, because it cannot retreat to the next regions owing to the constant condensation of clouds one on the other; and thunderbolts may be produced in other ways too. Thunderbolts may occur because there are frequent gatherings of wind, which whirls about and is fanned into a fierce flame, and then a portion of it breaks off and rushes violently on the places beneath, the breaking taking place because the regions approached are successively denser owing to the condensation of clouds, or as the result of the actual outburst of the whirling fire, in the same way that thunder may be produced, when the fire becomes too great and is too violently fanned by wind and so breaks through the cloud, because it cannot retreat to the next regions owing to the constant condensation of clouds one on the other; and thunderbolts may be produced in other ways too.
- 
-===== The only cause that must be excluded from consideration at all time is superstitition - that the gods cause the things that we see, and superstition is easily overcome if one follows the lead of the observations we are discussing here. ===== 
  
 Only superstition must be excluded, as it will, if one successfully follows the lead of seen phenomena to gain indications about the invisible. Only superstition must be excluded, as it will, if one successfully follows the lead of seen phenomena to gain indications about the invisible.
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 And when the spout is let down on to the land, whirlwinds are produced in all the various ways in which their creation may occur owing to the movement of the wind, but if it reaches the sea it produces waterspouts. And when the spout is let down on to the land, whirlwinds are produced in all the various ways in which their creation may occur owing to the movement of the wind, but if it reaches the sea it produces waterspouts.
  
-Earthquakes may be brought about both because wind is caught up in the earth, so that the earth is dislocated in small masses and is continually shaken, and that causes it to sway.  +Earthquakes may be brought about both because wind is caught up in the earth, so that the earth is dislocated in small masses and is continually shaken, and that causes it to sway.
  
-This wind it either takes into itself from outside, or else because masses of ground fall in into cavernous places in the earth and fan into wind the air that is imprisoned in them. +This wind it either takes into itself from outside, or else because masses of ground fall in into cavernous places in the earth and fan into wind the air that is imprisoned in them.
  
 And again, earthquakes may be brought about by the actual spreading of the movement which results from the fall of many such masses of ground and the return shock, when the first motion comes into collision with more densely packed bodies of earth. And again, earthquakes may be brought about by the actual spreading of the movement which results from the fall of many such masses of ground and the return shock, when the first motion comes into collision with more densely packed bodies of earth.
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 The other winds arise when a few (currents of air) fall into many hollow spaces, and cause a spreading of wind. The other winds arise when a few (currents of air) fall into many hollow spaces, and cause a spreading of wind.
  
-Hail is produced both by a powerful congelation,​ when certain windy bodies form together from all sides and split up: also by a more moderate congelation of watery bodies and their simultaneous division, which causes at one and the same time their coagulation and separation, so that they cling together as they freeze in their separate parts as well as in their whole masses. ​+Hail is produced both by a powerful congelation,​ when certain windy bodies form together from all sides and split up: also by a more moderate congelation of watery bodies and their simultaneous division, which causes at one and the same time their coagulation and separation, so that they cling together as they freeze in their separate parts as well as in their whole masses.
  
 Their circular shape may possibly arise because the comers melt off all round or because at their conformation bodies, whether watery or windy, come together evenly from all directions part by part, as is alleged. Their circular shape may possibly arise because the comers melt off all round or because at their conformation bodies, whether watery or windy, come together evenly from all directions part by part, as is alleged.
  
-Snow may be produced when fine particles of rain are poured out of the clouds owing to the existence of pores of suitable shape and the strong and constant compression by winds of clouds of the right kind; and then the water is congealed in its descent owing to some conformation of excessive coldness in the clouds in the lower regions. ​+Snow may be produced when fine particles of rain are poured out of the clouds owing to the existence of pores of suitable shape and the strong and constant compression by winds of clouds of the right kind; and then the water is congealed in its descent owing to some conformation of excessive coldness in the clouds in the lower regions.
  
 Or else owing to congelation in clouds of uniform thinness an exudation of this kind might arise from watery clouds lying side by side and rubbing against one another: for they produce hail by causing coagulation,​ a process most frequent in the atmosphere. Or else, owing to the friction of congealed clouds, these nuclei of snow may find occasion to break off. And there are many other ways in which snow may be produced. Or else owing to congelation in clouds of uniform thinness an exudation of this kind might arise from watery clouds lying side by side and rubbing against one another: for they produce hail by causing coagulation,​ a process most frequent in the atmosphere. Or else, owing to the friction of congealed clouds, these nuclei of snow may find occasion to break off. And there are many other ways in which snow may be produced.
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 And their disappearance occurs owing to the opposite causes to these. And their disappearance occurs owing to the opposite causes to these.
  
-Some stars ‘revolve in their place’ (as Homer says), which comes to pass not only because this part of the world is stationary and round it the rest revolves, as some say, but also because a whirl of air is formed in a ring round it, which prevents their moving about as do the other stars: ​ or else it is because there is not a succession of appropriate fuel for them, but only in this place in which they are seen fixed.+Some stars ‘revolve in their place’ (as Homer says), which comes to pass not only because this part of the world is stationary and round it the rest revolves, as some say, but also because a whirl of air is formed in a ring round it, which prevents their moving about as do the other stars: or else it is because there is not a succession of appropriate fuel for them, but only in this place in which they are seen fixed.
  
 And there are many other ways in which this may be brought about, if one is able to infer what is in agreement with phenomena. And there are many other ways in which this may be brought about, if one is able to infer what is in agreement with phenomena.
  
 That some of the stars should wander in their course, if indeed it is the case that their movements are such, while others do not move in this manner, may be due to the reason that from the first as they moved in their circles they were so constrained by necessity that some of them move along the same regular orbit, and others along one which is associated with certain irregularities:​ or it may be that among the regions to which they are carried in some places there are regular tracts of air which urge them on successively in the same direction and provide flame for them regularly, while in other places the tracts are irregular, so that the aberrations which we observe result. That some of the stars should wander in their course, if indeed it is the case that their movements are such, while others do not move in this manner, may be due to the reason that from the first as they moved in their circles they were so constrained by necessity that some of them move along the same regular orbit, and others along one which is associated with certain irregularities:​ or it may be that among the regions to which they are carried in some places there are regular tracts of air which urge them on successively in the same direction and provide flame for them regularly, while in other places the tracts are irregular, so that the aberrations which we observe result.
- 
-===== It is madness - the worst kind of error - to conclude that there is only one possible cause for a thing when the evidence supports the possibility of several different causes, but this kind of madness is exactly what supersitious men engage in when they conclude that the gods cause these phenomena. ===== 
  
 But to assign a single cause for these occurrences,​ when phenomena demand several explanations,​ is madness, and is quite wrongly practiced by persons who are partisans of the foolish notions of astrology, by which they give futile explanations of the causes of certain occurrences,​ and all the time do not by any means free the divine nature from the burden of responsibilities. But to assign a single cause for these occurrences,​ when phenomena demand several explanations,​ is madness, and is quite wrongly practiced by persons who are partisans of the foolish notions of astrology, by which they give futile explanations of the causes of certain occurrences,​ and all the time do not by any means free the divine nature from the burden of responsibilities.
  
-That some stars should be seen to be left behind by others is caused because though they move round in the same orbit they are carried along more slowly, and also because they really move in the opposite direction though they are dragged back by the same revolution: also because some are carried round through a greater space and some through a lesser, though all perform the same revolution. ​ But to give a single explanation of these occurrences is only suitable to those who wish to make a show to the many.+That some stars should be seen to be left behind by others is caused because though they move round in the same orbit they are carried along more slowly, and also because they really move in the opposite direction though they are dragged back by the same revolution: also because some are carried round through a greater space and some through a lesser, though all perform the same revolution. But to give a single explanation of these occurrences is only suitable to those who wish to make a show to the many.
  
 What are called falling stars may be produced in part by the rubbing of star against star, and by the falling out of the fragments wherever an outburst of wind occurs, as we explained in the case of lightning-flashes:​ or else by the meeting of atoms productive of fire, when a gathering of kindred material occurs to cause this, and a movement in the direction of the impulse which results from the original meeting; or else by a gathering of wind in certain dense and misty formations, and its ignition as it whirls round, and then its bursting out of what encloses it and its rush towards the spot to which the impulse of its flight tends. What are called falling stars may be produced in part by the rubbing of star against star, and by the falling out of the fragments wherever an outburst of wind occurs, as we explained in the case of lightning-flashes:​ or else by the meeting of atoms productive of fire, when a gathering of kindred material occurs to cause this, and a movement in the direction of the impulse which results from the original meeting; or else by a gathering of wind in certain dense and misty formations, and its ignition as it whirls round, and then its bursting out of what encloses it and its rush towards the spot to which the impulse of its flight tends.
  
 And there are other ways in which this result may be brought about, quite free from superstition. And there are other ways in which this result may be brought about, quite free from superstition.
- 
-===== And it is also madness to conclude that the action of animals are signs given us by the gods about approaching bad weather, as neither an animal nor a god are so stupid as to be seized by the idea of engaging in such foolishness. ===== 
  
 The signs of the weather which are given by certain animals result from mere coincidence of occasion. The signs of the weather which are given by certain animals result from mere coincidence of occasion.
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 For not even the lowest animal, although ‘a small thing gives the greater pleasure,​’ would be seized by such foolishness,​ much less one who was possessed of perfect happiness. For not even the lowest animal, although ‘a small thing gives the greater pleasure,​’ would be seized by such foolishness,​ much less one who was possessed of perfect happiness.
  
-===== So if you will remember the general rule of thought as to multiple causeswhereby you strictly follow the available evidence but no further than it will carry you, and if you remember also the nature of the infinite and eternal universe, ​you will never be troubled by superstition.  From these basic points you can reason out the details for yourself, ​and thereby have confidence in your ability to live happily, but those who fail to grasp these points ​will not be able to do so=====+All these thingsPythocles, you must bear in mind; for thus you will escape in most things from superstition and will be enabled to understand what is akin to them.
  
 +And most of all give yourself up to the study of the beginnings and of infinity and of the things akin to them, and also of the criteria of truth and of the feelings, and of the purpose for which we reason out these things.
  
-All these things, Pythocles, you must bear in mind; for thus you will escape in most things from superstition and will be enabled ​to understand ​what is akin to them+For these points when they are thoroughly studied ​will most easily enable you to understand ​the causes of the details.
  
-And most of all give yourself up to the study of the beginnings and of infinity and of the things akin to them, and also of the criteria of truth and of the feelings, and of the purpose ​for which we reason out these things+But those who have not thoroughly taken these things ​to heart could not rightly ​study them in themselvesnor have they made their own the reason ​for observing them.
  
-For these points when they are thoroughly studied will most easily enable you to understand the causes of the details. ​ 
  
-But those who have not thoroughly taken these things to heart could not rightly study them in themselves, nor have they made their own the reason for observing them. 
letter_to_pythocles.txt · Last modified: 2019/02/18 11:24 by cassiusamicus